Development Timeline
  • SUNIST in 2002

  • SUNIST in 2009

  • SUNIST in 2019

  • SUNIST in 2022

  • Preparing Device Site

  • Preparing Device Site

  • Placing Device and Equipment

  • Constructing Test Room

  • Installing Device Base and Heaters

  • Testing Vacuum

  • Installing and Adjusting PF Coils

  • Device Assembly Finished

  • Assembling TF Power Supply

  • Testing CS Power Supply

  • Testing PF Power Supply

  • Assembling PF Power Supply

  • Assembling Power Supplies

  • Installing Power Supply Racks

  • Constructing Test Room

  • Installing Diagnostics Inside and Outside the Vacuum Chamber

  • Installing Copper Bars

  • Testing Filament

  • The First Microwave Cleaning

  • Installing Diagnostics—Rogowski Coils

  • 100 kA ohmic discharge

  • Offline plasma source testing

  • High-parameter test of TF power supply magnets

  • Complementary improvements in the device structure

  • Installation of Graphite Tiles in the Vacuum Vessel

  • Installation and Discharge Testing of the MC Power Cables

  • Debugging of the TS Laser System

  • Offline Testing of the Liquid Lithium System

Jan.2024: Device structure reinforcement and further enhancement of longitudinal field parameters
Feb.2024: High-parameter internal reconnection heating experiment
Q2.2024: High-Temperature Superconducting Magnets Coil Design and Fabrication
Q1.2025: High-Temperature Superconducting Magnets Power Supply Design
Q4.2025: Integral Device Installation
Q2.2026: First Plasma
Q2.2027: Continuous and stable heating of plasma to 100 million degrees Celsius
Exploration Device of Spherical Tokamak
( Independently Constructed and Operated by Tsinghua University )
Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST), China’s first spherical tokamak, was completed in 2002 through a collaboration between the Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University and the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is developed to assist the knowledge of the basic features of low-aspect-ratio plasma and the exploration into methods for plasma startup and non-inductive current drive in spherical tokamaks. So far, it has maintained operation for more than 20 years and discharged over 100 thousand times, yielding fruitful outcomes.
Chronology of SUNIST
November 4, 2002: Achievement of the first plasma with a plasma current of 40 kA and a 0.06 T magnetic field
2003 to 2007: Physical studies (boundary plasma, turbulence, startup by electron cyclotron waves)
2008: Device dismantlement, renovation of the vessel chamber, and reassembly
2009 to 2019: Continuous upgrade of the magnetic field power supply and the controlling system, enriched plasma diagnostics, and research into magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, three-dimensional eddy currents and their influence, Alfvén eigenmodes, tearing mode, electron Bernstein wave heating, and other areas.
2019: A plasma current of 120 kA and a 0.27 T magnetic field
2020 to date: Continuous transformation and upgrade, more advanced refueling method, etc.
Theoretical Validation Device of Repeated Magnetic Reconnection
( Jointly Built and Operated by Tsinghua University and Startorus Fusion )
SUNIST-2, also a spherical tokamak, is specially designed for the theoretical validation of repeated magnetic reconnection and the confinement performance of spherical tokamaks with a 1 T magnetic field. In June 2023, the device was completed under the cooperation between Startorus Fusion and Tsinghua University and achieved its first plasma. In the first half of the 2024, it will heat plasma to 17 million degrees Celsius (ion temperature) through repeated magnetic reconnection, hitting a milestone for the Company in the first stage. It will by then draw level with other advanced devices of the same kind in the world.
Main Parameters of SUNIST-2
Major radius 0.53 m
Minor radius 0.33 m
Toroidal magnetic field 1 T
Plasma current 500 kA
Ion temperature 1.5 keV
Validation Device of Fusion Technologies
CTRFR-1, a validation device of fusion technologies designed and constructed by Startorus Fusion, is a medium-sized high-temperature superconducting spherical tokamak in which the plasma parameters are close to the requirements of reactors. More importantly, the plasma density, temperature and energy confinement time and other key parameters will all be close to or exceed the requirements for energy breakeven (Q=1), reaching a milestone for the Company in the second stage. With this device, the Company will validate the technical viability of repeated magnetic reconnection reactors. At present, the Company is working on the design of CTRFR-1 and has cooperated with teams from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University in designing and building a full-scale high-temperature superconducting D-shaped coil for the device.
Main Parameters of CTRFR-1
Major radius 1.0 m
Minor radius 0.56 m
Toroidal magnetic field 3-5 T
Plasma current 3 MA
Ion temperature 10 keV
Demonstration Reactor of Commercial Fusion
When CTRFR-1 meets scheduled targets, Startorus Fusion will embark on the design and construction of a commercial demonstration reactor (CTRFR-2) and strive to make it the world's first demonstration reactor of commercial controlled fusion. With this reactor, the Company will partner with friends in the industry to validate the full fuel cycle, power output, and materials resistant to neutron/thermal loads in reactors and work out solutions to the first wall, tritium breeding blanket and other key technologies, thus striking a milestone in the third stage. The Company is committed to promoting the commercialization of fusion power at a steady pace.
Main Parameters and Features of CTRFR-2
Major radius 3.0 m
Minor radius 1.67 m
Toroidal magnetic field 5 T
Plasma current 11 MA
Ion temperature 15 keV
Net electric power output (Pe,net) 100 MW
Central neutron shield
Outer neutron moderating and tritium breeding blankets and neutron shield
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Company Address
Startorus Fusion,2-22,Northern Intelligent Manufacturing Park,Gaoling District, Xi'an,Shaanxi Province, China.
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